State System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

 

Bosnia and Herzegovina (abbreviated: BIH) is a country in southeastern Europe, situated in the west of the Balkan Peninsula. From the north, west and south-west it borders with Croatia, in the east with Serbia and in the south-east with Montenegro. The capital is Sarajevo. It gained its independence on the 1st of March 1992, after the decision of BIH citizens with the referendum on self-determination. According to international estimates from 2006, the population was numbered at 4,498,976.

Bosnia and Herzegovina, by its state organization, is one of a kind in the world. Its arrangement is of republican character, although BIH does not work or is defined as a republic because of the complexity of the units it’s divided in (entities and cantons). The government, at the current constitution, began composing from the 14th of December 1995 after the signing of the Dayton Peace Agreement.

The European Parliament elects the High Representative. The current High Representative in Bosnia and Herzegovina is Valentin Inzko from Austria. The Presidency of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of three members from each constitutive people, who rotate in the chairman position every 8 months. They are directly elected by the people. A mandate lasts four years. The Chairman of the Council of Ministers is appointed by the Presidency, and approved by the Parliament. The Chairman then appoints ministers.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has several levels of political structure after the state government level. The most important of these divisions is the organization of the state by entities (Republic of Srpska and the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina). The third level of political division, after the entities and the federal government, are the cantons. The Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina consists of ten cantons. The final level of the political division of Bosnia and Herzegovina are the municipalities. The state consists of 137 municipalities, 74 of which are in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and 63 in the Republic of Srpska.

The Constitution of Bosnia and Herzegovina is actually the Annex 4 of the Dayton Peace Agreement. With it a division of legislative, executive and judicial powers was defined, as well as the political structure of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

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